Guidelines for the treatment of cytomegalovirus diseases in patients with AIDS in the era of potent antiretroviral therapy: recommendations of an international panel. International AIDS Society-USA

Arch Intern Med. 1998 May 11;158(9):957-69. doi: 10.1001/archinte.158.9.957.


Objective: To provide recommendations for the treatment of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related cytomegalovirus (CMV) end-organ diseases, including retinitis, colitis, pneumonitis, and neurologic diseases.

Participants: A 17-member panel of physicians with expertise in clinical and virological research and inpatient care in the field of CMV diseases.

Evidence: Available clinical and virological study results. Recommendations are rated according to the quality and strength of available evidence. Recommendations were limited to the treatment of CMV diseases; prophylaxis recommendations are not included.

Process: The panel was convened in February 1997 and met regularly through November 1997. Subgroups of the panel summarized and presented available information on specific topics to the full panel; recommendations and ratings were determined by group consensus.

Conclusions: Although the epidemiological features of CMV diseases are changing in the setting of potent, combination antiretroviral therapy, continued attention must be paid to CMV diseases in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus to prevent irreversible endorgan dysfunction. The initial and maintenance treatment of CMV retinitis must be individualized based on the characteristics of the lesions, including location and extent, specific patient factors, and characteristics of available therapies among others. Management of relapse or refractory retinitis must be likewise individualized. Ophthalmologic screening for patients at high risk for retinitis or who have a prior diagnosis of extraretinal disease is recommended. Recommendations for gastrointestinal, pulmonary, and neurologic manifestations are included.

Publication types

  • Guideline
  • Practice Guideline
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / drug therapy*
  • Anti-HIV Agents / therapeutic use
  • Antiviral Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Cidofovir
  • Cytomegalovirus Infections / drug therapy*
  • Cytosine / analogs & derivatives
  • Cytosine / therapeutic use
  • Foscarnet / therapeutic use
  • Ganciclovir / therapeutic use
  • Humans
  • Lung Diseases / drug therapy
  • Lung Diseases / virology
  • Nervous System Diseases / drug therapy
  • Nervous System Diseases / virology
  • Organophosphonates*
  • Organophosphorus Compounds / therapeutic use
  • Retinitis / drug therapy
  • Retinitis / virology


  • Anti-HIV Agents
  • Antiviral Agents
  • Organophosphonates
  • Organophosphorus Compounds
  • Foscarnet
  • Cytosine
  • Cidofovir
  • Ganciclovir