Asymmetric frontal brain activity, cortisol, and behavior associated with fearful temperament in rhesus monkeys

Behav Neurosci. 1998 Apr;112(2):286-92. doi: 10.1037//0735-7044.112.2.286.


The authors examined the hypothesis that rhesus monkeys with extreme right frontal electroencephalographic activity would have higher cortisol levels and would be more fearful compared with monkeys with extreme left frontal activity. The authors first showed that individual differences in asymmetric frontal electrical activity are a stable characteristic. Next, the authors demonstrated that relative right asymmetric frontal activity and cortisol levels are correlated in animals 1 year of age. Additionally, extreme right frontal animals had elevated cortisol concentrations and more intense defensive responses. At 3 years of age, extreme right frontal animals continued to have elevated cortisol concentrations. These findings demonstrate important relations among extreme asymmetric frontal electrical activity, cortisol levels, and trait-like fear-related behaviors in young rhesus monkeys.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Agonistic Behavior / physiology
  • Analysis of Variance
  • Animals
  • Electroencephalography*
  • Fear / physiology*
  • Female
  • Frontal Lobe / physiology*
  • Hydrocortisone / blood*
  • Individuality*
  • Macaca mulatta
  • Male
  • Temperament / physiology*


  • Hydrocortisone