We present a male patient with Dejerine-Sottas disease phenotype, who had a small direct tandem duplication of the Po gene. The pathology of the sural nerve showed hypomyelinated fibers with absence of active demyelination and onion-bulb formations composed of two parallel layers of basement membrane, consistent with congenital hypomyelination neuropathy (CHN). However, his clinical features were more severe than those of previously reported CHN patients. A GGCA insertion was identified at the position of nucleotide 560 in the myelin protein zero (Po) gene. This insertional mutation was located in exon 4 coding for the transmembrane domain of the Po gene and caused a shift of reading frame, creating a stop codon. The mutation of the transmembrane domain probably has the largest impact on Po function. The mutation was not identified in both parents.