Cytokine-mediated regulation of 92-kilodalton type IV collagenase, tissue inhibitor or metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1), and TIMP-3 messenger ribonucleic acid expression in human endometrial stromal cells

J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1998 May;83(5):1721-9. doi: 10.1210/jcem.83.5.4810.


Interleukin-1 (IL-1) is expressed in human endometrium and has been shown to play an integral role in local cellular interactions during implantation. In addition, the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) and its inhibitor, the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP), are crucial during implantation, mediating in vitro trophoblast penetration, and are regulated by several cytokines expressed by trophoblast cells. We have investigated the roles of IL-1 beta and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF beta) in regulating TIMP-1, TIMP-3, and 92-kDa type IV collagenase messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression in human endometrial stromal cells using quantitative competitive PCR. Confluent stromal cell cultures treated with progesterone and estradiol for 9 days were stimulated with IL-1 beta, IL-1 beta plus anti-IL-1 beta antibody, TGF beta, and TGF beta plus anti-TGF beta antibody for an additional 24 h. Competitive complementary DNA fragments were constructed by deletion of a defined fragment from each of the target complementary DNA sequences and coamplified in quantitative competitive PCR as an internal standard. TIMP-1 and TIMP-3, but not 92-kDa type IV collagenase mRNA, were expressed in stromal cells. The 92-kDa type IV collagenase mRNA was only expressed after stimulation with IL-1 beta. IL-1 beta both augmented 92-kDa type IV collagenase mRNA expression and decreased TIMP-1 and TIMP-3 mRNA expression in a dose-dependent manner. Conversely, TGF beta augmented TIMP-1 and TIMP-3 mRNA expression, but did not affect 92-kDa type IV collagenase expression. IL-1 and TGF beta-mediated changes were both neutralized by specific antibodies. These results provide indirect evidence that IL-1 and TGF beta may play crucial roles at the embryo-maternal interface during trophoblast invasion by regulating stromal cell expression of TIMP-1, TIMP-3, and 92-kDa type IV collagenase, all of which are known to be important in trophoblast invasion.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Cells, Cultured
  • Collagenases / genetics*
  • Culture Media, Conditioned
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Endometrium / metabolism*
  • Female
  • Gene Expression Regulation
  • Humans
  • Interleukin-1 / metabolism
  • Interleukin-1 / pharmacology*
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase 9
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Prolactin / metabolism
  • RNA, Messenger / metabolism
  • Stromal Cells / metabolism
  • Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1 / genetics*
  • Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-3 / genetics*
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta / pharmacology*


  • Culture Media, Conditioned
  • Interleukin-1
  • RNA, Messenger
  • Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1
  • Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-3
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta
  • Prolactin
  • Collagenases
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase 9