Dyschondrosteosis (DCS) is an autosomal dominant form of mesomelic dysplasia with deformity of the forearm (Madelung deformity; ref. 3). Based on the observation of XY translocations (p22,q12; refs 4-6) in DCS patients, we tested the pseudoautosomal region in eight families with DCS and showed linkage of the DCS gene to a microsatellite DNA marker at the DXYS233 locus (Zmax=6.26 at theta=0). The short stature homeobox-containing gene (SHOX), involved in idiopathic growth retardation and possibly Turner short stature, maps to this region and was therefore regarded as a strong candidate gene in DCS. Here, we report large-scale deletions (in seven families) and a nonsense mutation (in one family) of SHOX in patients with DCS and show that Langer mesomelic dwarfism results from homozygous mutations at the DCS locus.