A double-blind placebo-controlled trial was conducted to assess the efficacy and safety of albendazole (400 mg twice daily for 3 weeks) for the treatment of Encephalitozoon intestinalis infection in patients with AIDS. Clearance of microsporidia from the intestinal tract was obtained in 4 of 4 patients in the albendazole group versus 0 of 4 in the control group (P = .01, one-sided Fisher's exact test) and was associated with significant clinical benefit. All 4 controls subsequently cleared microsporidia following open-labeled albendazole treatment. To investigate the effect of albendazole in preventing relapse, these 8 patients were then randomly assigned to receive either albendazole (400 mg twice daily) or no treatment for the next 12 months. Albendazole significantly delayed the occurrence of relapse (P = .04, one-sided log-rank test). In human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with E. intestinalis infection, albendazole has parasitologic and clinical efficacy and reduces the risk of relapse.