Renal effects of cadmium exposure in people living in a cadmium-nonpolluted area in Japan were investigated. The population consisted of 1501 inhabitants (558 men and 743 women) over 50 years of age. Urinary cadmium was employed as an indicator of internal dose, and total urinary protein, beta 2-microglobulin, and N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase were used as indicators of renal dysfunction. Multiple regression analysis and a logistic regression analysis were performed to study the relationship between urinary cadmium excretion and these indicators of renal dysfunction. In both procedures, urinary cadmium concentrations were significantly associated with indicators of renal dysfunction. These results suggest the existence of renal dysfunction induced by exposure to environmental cadmium in a cadmium-nonpolluted area in Japan.