A 12-year retrospective analysis was done to identify and evaluate in detail cases of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) caused by Aspergillus terreus. We identified 13 A. terreus infections among 133 total cases of confirmed invasive aspergillosis; 11 were IPA and 2 were primary peritoneal infections. Of the 11 patients with IPA, 7 developed neutropenia during hospitalization, and the remaining four were receiving immunosuppressive agents. Ten patients with IPA died; one liver transplantation patient without neutropenia survived after treatment with amphotericin B, itraconazole, and a pulmonary lobectomy. Six patients developed disseminated disease, with the heart the most common extrapulmonary site identified (four patients). These cases demonstrate that IPA caused by A. terreus rapidly progresses in immunocompromised patients receiving amphotericin B and illustrate the need for sensitive diagnostic tests and more effective antifungal agents.