In an effort to produce a more complete transcription map of the short (approximately 5 Mb) arm of the mouse Y chromosome, we have initiated exon trapping from Yp-derived YACs. Sequence analysis of the trapped products has identified exons of previously cloned mouse Y-located genes Zfy and SSty and potential exons homologous to the human Y-located Tspy gene family. In addition, a family of three Yp-located transcripts that show close homology to human RHOA (locus designation ARHA), a member of the Ras family of small GTPases, has been identified. To determine whether these Yp sequences had been transposed from an autosomal ancestor, we used this trapped product to isolate a full-length autosomal mouse RhoA cDNA that is 80% identical at the nucleotide level and 98% identical at the amino acid level to human RHOA and maps to mouse Chromosome 2 (locus designation ArhA). Sequence analysis indicates that the Y-linked copies have diverged from the autosomal form, with small deletions precluding maintenance of a significant open reading frame in all Yp copies. Yet RT-PCR analysis indicates that two of these pseudogenes, RhoAy1 and 3, are expressed in a testis-specific manner, in sharp contrast to the nearly ubiquitous expression pattern of the autosomal ancestor. The data indicate that the Y copies of RhoA have been transposed from an autosome, followed by subsequent duplication, sequence divergence, and acquisition of a testis-specific promoter/enhancer.