Purpose: We assessed the long-term results of renal transplantation in children with augmentation cystoplasty.
Materials and methods: We retrospectively reviewed the complications and followup in 14 pediatric renal transplant recipients with augmentation cystoplasty. The etiology of bladder dysfunction included posterior urethral valves in 10 cases, neurogenic bladder in 3 and vesicoureteral reflux in 1. All transplants were cadaver donor kidneys. Mean patient age at transplantation was 12.1 years (range 5 to 18). Augmentation cystoplasty was performed before and after transplantation in 10 and 4 cases, respectively. Detubularized ileum was used in 5 cases, tubular ileum in 4, tubular sigmoid in 4 and stomach in 1.
Results: Of the 14 transplanted kidneys 10 (71%) were functioning at a mean followup of 80 months (range 12 to 151). Serum creatinine was less than 1.4 mg./dl. in 9 patients. Four grafts were lost to chronic rejection. The 5 and 10-year graft survival rates were 84 and 73%, respectively. Two patients with a functioning kidney died of causes unrelated to augmentation cystoplasty. Complications included symptomatic urinary infections in 4 patients, hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis in 2, nephrolithiasis in the allograft in 2 and the hematuria-dysuria syndrome in 1. All patients were continent.
Conclusions: Augmentation cystoplasty is a safe and effective method of restoring lower urinary tract function in the pediatric renal transplant population with a small noncompliant bladder.