CXCR4 is the receptor for the CXC chemokine SDF1 that has essential functions on embryo organogenesis, immunological functions and T lymphocyte trafficking. Recently, CXCR4 has drawn unexpected attention as it was recently identified as a co-factor required for entry of lymphotropic HIV isolates in CD4+ T lymphocytes. CXCR4 is the only SDF1 receptor identified so far. This suggests that CXCR4 expression is critical for the biological effects of SDF1. To investigate the mechanisms controlling both the constitutive and induced expression of CXCR4 receptors we have isolated and characterized the promoter region and determined the genomic structure of the human gene. The CXCR4 gene contains two exons separated by an intronic sequence. A 2.6 kb 5'-flanking region located upstream the CXCR4 open reading frame contains a TATA box and the transcription start site characteristic of a functional promoter. This region also contains putative consensus binding sequences for different transcription factors, some of them associated with the hemopoiesis and lymphocyte development.