Fifteen pediatric patients undergoing surgery for annular pancreas from 1984 to 1996 were analyzed. Vomiting was the most common presenting symptom. Twelve patients (80%) had associated anomalies including malrotation (40%), intrinsic duodenal obstruction (33%), Down syndrome (27%) and duodenal bands (27%). Their ages at operation were between 5 hours and 8.5 years, with a median of 4 days. Surgical treatment included duodenojejunostomy in nine, duodenoduodenostomy in five and duodenotomy with duodenoplasty in one. The mean duration for reestablishment of bowel transit was 17.9 days, with 22.8 days for duodenojejunostomy and 12.3 days for duodenoduodenostomy. All cases received postoperative follow-up, but only 11 of them were long-term followed until April 1997, with a duration ranging from 1 year and 2 months to 11 years, with a median of 7 years and 5 months. The survival was 100%, but 12 cases (80%) developed postoperative complications including cholestatic jaundice (53%), upper gastrointestinal motility disorder (47%), failure to thrive (40%) and chronic diarrhea (33%). Annular pancreas divisum was noted in one case with chronic relapsing pancreatitis. At the end of follow-up (April 1997), when final ages ranged from 1 year and 2 months to 18 years and 9 months with a median of 7 years and 5 months, there were still problems: steatorrhea in 1, diarrhea after fatty diet in 3, malnutrition in 4, failure to thrive in 3 and lower concentration of stool trypsin in 3 cases. In conclusion, close long-term follow-up is essential for infants treated for annular pancreas because many of them can be expected to develop complications, even if the initial postoperative period is uncomplicated and survival is excellent.