T lymphocyte differentiation in the periphery

Curr Opin Immunol. 1998 Apr;10(2):226-32. doi: 10.1016/s0952-7915(98)80253-7.


The development of immune responses is significantly influenced by emerging patterns of cytokine expression in activated CD4+ T cells. Recent efforts have clarified both cellular and molecular mechanisms, and within the past year include significant observations on potential sources of IL-4 leading to Th2 development against certain pathogens, and insights into early responses and genetic susceptibility to experimental murine Leishmaniasis and transcriptional regulation of the IL-4 locus. Advances in Th1 development have included greater understanding of IL-12 receptors in Th1 development, data regarding IFN-gamma gene expression and clarification of the action of the new cytokine IL-18.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cell Differentiation / physiology
  • Cytokines / physiology
  • Gene Expression Regulation
  • Humans
  • Interferon-gamma / physiology
  • Interleukin-18
  • Interleukin-4 / genetics
  • Interleukin-4 / physiology
  • Mice
  • Receptors, Interleukin / physiology
  • Receptors, Interleukin-12
  • T-Lymphocytes / cytology*
  • Th1 Cells / cytology
  • Th2 Cells / cytology


  • Cytokines
  • Interleukin-18
  • Receptors, Interleukin
  • Receptors, Interleukin-12
  • Interleukin-4
  • Interferon-gamma