Leukocyte chemoattractants act through a rapidly growing subfamily of G protein-coupled receptors. We report the cloning of a novel human gene encoding an orphan receptor (ChemR23) related to the C3a, C5a and formyl Met-Leu-Phe receptors, and more distantly to the subfamilies of chemokine receptors. ChemR23 transcripts were found to be abundant in monocyte-derived dendritic cells and macrophages, treated or not with LPS. Low expression could also be detected by reverse transcription-PCR in CD4+ T lymphocytes. The gene encoding ChemR23 was assigned by radiation hybrid mapping to the q21.2-21.3 region of human chromosome 12, outside the gene clusters identified so far for chemoattractant receptors. Given the increasing number of chemoattractant receptors used by HIV-1, HIV-2 and SIV as coreceptors, ChemR23 was tested in fusion assays for potential coreceptor activity by a range of viral strains. None of the tested HIV-2 strains made use of ChemR23 as a coreceptor, but several SIV strains (SIVmac316, SIVmac239, SIVmacl7E-Fr and SIVsm62A), as well as a primary HIV-1 strain (92UG024-2) used it efficiently. ChemR23 therefore appears as a coreceptor for immunodeficiency viruses that does not belong to the chemokine receptor family. It is also a putative chemoattractant receptor relatively specific for antigen-presenting cells, and it could play an important role in the recruitment or trafficking of these cell populations. Future work will be required to identify the ligand(s) of this new G protein-coupled receptor and to define its precise role in the physiology of dendritic cells and macrophages.