The indeterminate gene encodes a zinc finger protein and regulates a leaf-generated signal required for the transition to flowering in maize

Cell. 1998 May 15;93(4):593-603. doi: 10.1016/s0092-8674(00)81188-5.


Flowering in plants is a consequence of the transition of the shoot apex from vegetative to reproductive growth in response to environmental and internal signals. The indeterminate1 gene (id1) controls the transition to flowering in maize. We show by cloning the id1 gene that it encodes a protein with zinc finger motifs, suggesting that the id1 gene product functions as a transcriptional regulator of the floral transition. id1 mRNA expression studies and analyses of transposon-induced chimeric plants indicate that id1 acts non-cell-autonomously to regulate the production of a transmissible signal in the leaf that elicits the transformation of the shoot apex to reproductive development. These results provide molecular and genetic data consistent with the florigen hypothesis derived from classical plant physiology studies.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Chimera
  • Cloning, Molecular
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Plant / physiology
  • Genes, Plant / genetics*
  • Meristem / growth & development
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Mutation
  • Phenotype
  • Plant Leaves / physiology
  • Plant Proteins*
  • Plant Shoots / growth & development*
  • RNA, Messenger / analysis
  • RNA, Plant / analysis
  • Sequence Analysis, DNA
  • Sequence Homology, Amino Acid
  • Transcription Factors / genetics*
  • Transcription Factors / physiology
  • Zea mays / genetics*
  • Zea mays / growth & development
  • Zinc Fingers*


  • Id1 protein, plant
  • Plant Proteins
  • RNA, Messenger
  • RNA, Plant
  • Transcription Factors

Associated data

  • GENBANK/AF058757