In July 1995, 40 Montana residents were identified with laboratory-confirmed Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection; 52 residents had bloody diarrhea without laboratory confirmation. The median age of those with laboratory-confirmed cases was 42 years (range, 4- 86); 58% were female. Thirteen patients were hospitalized, and 1 developed hemolytic-uremic syndrome. A case-control study showed that 19 (70%) of 27 patients but only 8 (17%) of 46 controls reported eating purchased (not home-grown) leaf lettuce before illness (matched odds ratio, 25.3; 95% confidence interval, 3.9-1065.6). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis identified a common strain among 22 of 23 isolates tested. Implicated lettuce was traced to two sources: a local Montana farm and six farms in Washington State that shipped under the same label. This outbreak highlights the increasing importance of fresh produce as a vehicle in foodborne illness. Sanitary growing and handling procedures are necessary to prevent these infections.