Current perspectives on pain upon injection of drugs

J Pharm Sci. 1998 Jun;87(6):667-77. doi: 10.1021/js970315l.


A limitation in the administration of parenteral products is the pain caused upon injection. Injection site pain has been predominately associated with intravenous, intramuscular, and subcutaneous administration. It becomes important for the formulation scientist to have a basic understanding of the physiology underlying the pain process, as well as the pharmaceutical factors associated with injection site pain. Initially, this review will provide the reader with a primer on the mediation of pain in the periphery and a compilation of those drugs that have been associated with pain on injection. In addition, this review will present important considerations and general formulation approaches or methods that have been used to overcome pain on injection. Finally, a brief overview of the various experimental systems used to investigate injection site pain is discussed.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Humans
  • Injections / adverse effects*
  • Pain / etiology*