Toxicity of fotemustine in rat hepatocytes and mechanism-based protection against it

Chem Biol Interact. 1998 Apr 3;110(3):139-58. doi: 10.1016/s0009-2797(98)00004-0.


Fotemustine is a relatively novel DNA-alkylating 2-chloroethyl-substituted N-nitrosourea (CENU) drug, clinically used for the treatment of disseminated malignant melanoma in different visceral and non-visceral tissues. Thrombocytopenia has been observed in patients treated with fotemustine and liver and renal toxicities as well. In this study, firstly the metabolism of fotemustine was investigated in vitro and secondly the undesired cytotoxicity of fotemustine as well as different ways of protection against it. In rat hepatocytes, chosen as a model system, fotemustine was shown to cause lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage, glutathione (GSH) depletion, GSSG-formation and lipid peroxidation (LPO). A reactive metabolite, DEP-isocyanate, is most likely responsible for these undesired cytotoxic effects. Based on the observed cytotoxicity mechanisms, chemoprotection with several sulfhydryl-containing nucleophiles and antioxidants was investigated. The sulfhydryl nucleophiles; GSH, N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) and glutathione isopropylester (GSH-IP) protected almost completely against fotemustine-induced LDH-leakage and LPO. NAC and GSH protected partly against fotemustine-induced GSH-depletion. The antioxidant, vitamin E protected completely against fotemustine-induced LPO, but only partly against fotemustine-induced LDH-leakage and not against GSH-depletion. Ebselen, a peroxidase-mimetic organoselenium compound, did not show protective effects against the cytotoxicity of fotemustine, possibly because GSH is required for the bioactivation of ebselen. It is concluded that co-administration of sulfhydryl nucleophiles, in particular NAC and GSH-IP, possibly in combination with antioxidants, such as vitamin E, are effective against the toxicity of fotemustine in vitro. It might, therefore, be worthwhile to investigate the cytoprotective potency of these agents against undesired toxicities of fotemustine in vivo as well.

MeSH terms

  • Acetylcysteine / pharmacology
  • Animals
  • Antineoplastic Agents / toxicity*
  • Antioxidants / pharmacology*
  • Cell Survival / drug effects
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Glutathione / metabolism*
  • Glutathione / pharmacology
  • Glutathione Disulfide / metabolism
  • Kinetics
  • L-Lactate Dehydrogenase / analysis
  • Lipid Peroxidation / drug effects
  • Liver / drug effects*
  • Liver / metabolism
  • Liver / pathology
  • Male
  • Nitrosourea Compounds / toxicity*
  • Organophosphorus Compounds / toxicity*
  • Rats
  • Rats, Wistar
  • Sulfhydryl Reagents / pharmacology*
  • Vitamin E / pharmacology*


  • Antineoplastic Agents
  • Antioxidants
  • Nitrosourea Compounds
  • Organophosphorus Compounds
  • Sulfhydryl Reagents
  • Vitamin E
  • L-Lactate Dehydrogenase
  • Glutathione
  • fotemustine
  • Glutathione Disulfide
  • Acetylcysteine