Metabolism of ferulic acid via vanillin using a novel CoA-dependent pathway in a newly-isolated strain of Pseudomonas fluorescens

Microbiology (Reading). 1998 May:144 ( Pt 5):1397-1405. doi: 10.1099/00221287-144-5-1397.


A soil bacterium, designated Pseudomonas fluorescens AN103, was isolated based on its ability to grow on ferulic acid as a sole source of carbon and energy. In addition, this strain was found to metabolize a number of related phenolic substrates which contained a hydroxyl group at the para position of the aromatic ring. During growth on ferulic acid, transient accumulation of vanillic acid and trace amounts of protocatechuic acid were detected in the culture medium. Washed cells grown on ferulic acid readily oxidized vanillin, vanillic acid and protocatechuic acid, the three putative intermediates of the metabolic pathway. The side-chain cleavage of ferulic acid to produce vanillin was demonstrated in vitro for the first time and this enzyme-catalysed reaction was shown to have an essential requirement for CoASH, ATP and MgCl2. This conversion involved a two-step process involving a CoA ligase followed by the side-chain cleavage. The addition of NAD increased the oxidation of vanillin to vanillic acid and had an overall effect of increasing the rate of ferulic acid cleavage. The application of 13C-NMR studies in vitro revealed acetyl-CoA as the C2 side-chain cleavage product. High levels of inducible ferulate-CoA ligase and NAD-linked vanillin dehydrogenase were detected and a novel pathway for ferulic acid metabolism in this organism is proposed.

MeSH terms

  • Aldehyde Oxidoreductases / metabolism
  • Benzaldehydes / metabolism*
  • Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
  • Coenzyme A Ligases / metabolism
  • Coumaric Acids / metabolism*
  • Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
  • Microscopy, Electron
  • Pseudomonas fluorescens / growth & development
  • Pseudomonas fluorescens / isolation & purification*
  • Pseudomonas fluorescens / metabolism*
  • Soil Microbiology
  • Vanillic Acid / metabolism


  • Benzaldehydes
  • Coumaric Acids
  • ferulic acid
  • vanillin
  • Aldehyde Oxidoreductases
  • vanillin dehydrogenase
  • Coenzyme A Ligases
  • Vanillic Acid