The importance of the individual amino acid residues of AIP (KKALRRQEAVDAL), a highly specific inhibitor of calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), was studied. Replacement of Arg6, Gln7, or Ala9 by other amino acid residues produced a marked increase in the IC50 value. Leu4 and Val10 were also sensitive to replacement, but some hydrophobic amino acids could substitute for these residues. Although replacement of Ala3, Glu8, Ala12, and Leu13 by other residues produced no significant increase in the IC50, the substitution of Lys for Ala3 decreased the IC50. An AIP analog (KKKLRRQEAFDAY), in which Ala3 and Val10 were replaced with Lys and Phe, respectively, showed an IC50 value as low as 4 nM, suggesting that it is a useful tool for studying the physiological roles of CaMKII.