An in vitro model was designed to evaluate the efficacy of instilled antimicrobials to reduce or eliminate intraluminal microbial colonization. Minimal inhibitory concentration and minimal bactericidal concentration activity of appropriate test anti-infectives were determined using standard methodology against clinically derived and reference test strains commonly associated with catheter-related infection. Drug activity was validated by bioassay for the test anti-infectives. Reference and clinical test strains were inoculated to the intraluminal surface of silicone catheter segments and incubated for 30 min, after which the inoculum was replaced with total parenteral nutrition (TPN) solution and reincubated for 12 h. For 7 d, instillation of antibiotic and TPN solution was alternated every 12 h to simulate clinical conditions. On days 1, 4, and 7, catheter segments were rinsed, bisected, and sonicated for quantitative plate count to determine mean microbial counts per centimeter of catheter surface. Catheter segments were also prepared for scanning electron microscopy. A significant decrease in staphylococcal intraluminal colonization after instillation of nafcillin, ceftriaxone, gentamicin, and vancomycin was demonstrated (P < 0.001). Aztreonam, ceftriaxone, and gentamicin completely eliminated gram-negative catheter colonization (P < 0.001). Yeast was eradicated from the internal catheter surface after treatment with amphoteracin B, and fluconazole significantly decreased intraluminal colonization (P < 0.001). Results show a significant decrease in staphylococcal, gram-negative, and fungal intraluminal colonization after instillation of appropriate antimicrobial. In vitro results support early clinical success using this technique. Future studies are warranted to identify optimal drug concentrations and dosing intervals.