To further define the neonatal neutrophil's ability to localize to inflamed tissue compared with adult cells, we examined the neonatal neutrophil interactions with P-selectin monolayers under two conditions: (1) attachment under constant shear stress and flow and (2) detachment where cells were allowed to attach in the absence of shear stress and then shear stress is introduced and increased in step-wise increments. Cord blood and adult neutrophils had minimal interactions with unstimulated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) at a constant shear stress of 2 dynes/cm2. There was a marked increase in the number of both neonatal and adult cells interacting (interacting cells = rolling + arresting) with HUVECs after histamine stimulation, although the neonatal value was only 40% of adult (P < .05). Neonatal neutrophils also had significantly decreased interaction with monolayers of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells transfected with human P-selectin (CHO-P-selectin; 60% of adult values, P < .003). Of the interacting cells, there was a lower fraction of neonatal cells that rolled compared with adult cells on both stimulated HUVECs and CHO-P-selectin. That neonatal neutrophil L-selectin contributes to the diminished attachment to P-selectin is supported by the following: (1) Neonatal neutrophils had significantly diminished expression of L-selectin. (2) Anti-L-selectin monoclonal antibody reduced the number of interacting adult neutrophils to the level seen with untreated neonatal neutrophils, but had no effect on neonatal neutrophils. In contrast, L-selectin appeared to play no role in maintaining the interaction of either neonatal or adult neutrophils in the detachment assay. Once attachment occurred, the neonatal neutrophil's interaction with the P-selectin monolayer was dependent on LFA-1 and to other ligands to a lesser degree based on the following: (1) Control neonatal neutrophils had decreased rolling fraction compared with adult neutrophils, although the total number of interacting neutrophils was equal between groups. (2) Anti-LFA-1 treatment resulted in an increase in the rolling fraction of both neonatal and adult neutrophils. However, whereas the number of interacting adult neutrophils remained unchanged, the number of neonatal neutrophils decreased with increased shear stress. We speculate that this increased detachment of neonatal cells is due to differences in neutrophil ligand(s) for P-selectin.