Betafectin PGG-Glucan, a novel beta-(1,6) branched beta-(1,3) glucan purified from the cell walls of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, has been shown to synergize with myeloid growth factors in vitro and to enhance hematopoietic recovery in myelosuppressed mice and primates. Here we report that PGG-Glucan is also capable of mobilizing peripheral blood progenitor cells (PBPC). PGG-Glucan (0.5 mg/kg to 16 mg/kg) was administered intravenously to C3H/HeN male mice and blood collected at times ranging from 30 min to seven days after injection. Based on granulocyte-macrophage colony-forming cell (GM-CFC) levels, peak mobilization occurred 30 min after a 2 mg/kg PGG-Glucan dose. At this time GM-CFC numbers in PGG-Glucan-treated mice were approximately fourfold greater than in saline-treated control mice. A second, smaller wave of GM-CFC mobilization (approximately twofold increase) also occurred on days 4 and 5 after PGG-Glucan treatment. Mobilization was not associated with the induction of alpha-chemokines, which have recently been reported to induce rapid progenitor cell mobilization. Competitive repopulation experiments performed in irradiated female C3H/HeN mice revealed that, at three months after transplantation, more male DNA was present in bone marrow, splenic, and thymic tissues from animals transplanted with cells obtained from mice 30 min after a 2 mg/kg PGG-Glucan dose than in tissues from animals transplanted with cells obtained from saline-treated mice. Additional experiments evaluated the mobilization effects of PGG-Glucan (2 mg/kg) administered to mice which had been pretreated for three consecutive days with G-CSF (125 microg/kg/day). When blood was collected 30 min after PGG-Glucan treatment, the number of GM-CFC mobilized in combination-treated mice was additive between the number mobilized in mice treated with G-CSF alone and the number mobilized in mice treated with PGG-Glucan alone. These studies demonstrate that: A) PGG-Glucan can rapidly mobilize PBPC; B) the kinetic pattern of PGG-Glucan-induced mobilization is different from that of the CSFs; C) the reconstitutional potential of PGG-Glucan mobilized cells is greater than that of steady-state PBPC, and D) PGG-Glucan can enhance G-CSF-mediated PBPC mobilization.