Renal cell carcinoma

Curr Opin Oncol. 1998 May;10(3):261-5. doi: 10.1097/00001622-199805000-00014.


Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) continues to be a frustrating tumor for clinicians to manage and treat. Progress has been made in the identification of risk factors, particularly dietary risk factors. An increased risk has been seen with frequent consumption of fried meat and poultry. Citrus fruits, vitamin C, beta-carotene, and alpha-tocopherol have demonstrated a protective effect against RCC. Other factors that have been associated with the risk of RCC are smoking (which doubles the risk), obesity, hypertension, and exposure to asbestos and petroleum products. Response rates for systemic treatment of RCC continue to hover at about 20%; however, some nonchemotherapy treatments may provide palliation with few side effects. In addition, lower dose combinations of interleukin-2 and interferon alfa may be as beneficial as higher dose regimens, but with less toxicity. Molecular prognostic factors, including proliferation markers, karyometric analyses, oncogenes, and cell adhesion molecules and proteases are areas of intense investigation and may provide mechanisms for identifying patients who require more (or less) aggressive treatment.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use
  • Asbestos / adverse effects
  • Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis
  • Cancer Vaccines / therapeutic use
  • Carcinoma, Renal Cell* / drug therapy
  • Carcinoma, Renal Cell* / epidemiology
  • Carcinoma, Renal Cell* / etiology
  • Carcinoma, Renal Cell* / surgery
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Cohort Studies
  • Combined Modality Therapy
  • Comorbidity
  • Diet / adverse effects
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Hypertension / epidemiology
  • Immunologic Factors / therapeutic use
  • Immunotherapy
  • Interleukin-2 / therapeutic use
  • Kidney Neoplasms* / drug therapy
  • Kidney Neoplasms* / epidemiology
  • Kidney Neoplasms* / etiology
  • Kidney Neoplasms* / surgery
  • Male
  • Nephrectomy
  • Obesity / epidemiology
  • Palliative Care
  • Petroleum / adverse effects
  • Prognosis
  • Remission Induction
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • Smoking / adverse effects
  • Survival Analysis
  • Survival Rate
  • Treatment Outcome


  • Antineoplastic Agents
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Cancer Vaccines
  • Immunologic Factors
  • Interleukin-2
  • Petroleum
  • Asbestos