The growing family of interferon regulatory factors

Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 1997 Dec;8(4):293-312. doi: 10.1016/s1359-6101(97)00019-1.

Abstract

Interferons (IFN) exert their multiple biological effects through the induction of expression of over 30 genes encoding proteins with antiviral, antiproliferative and immunomodulatory functions. Among the many IFN-inducible proteins are the Interferon Regulatory Factors (IRFs), a family of transcription regulators, originally consisting of the well-characterized IRF-1 and IRF-2 proteins; the family has now expanded to over 10 members and is still growing. The present review provides a detailed description of recently characterized IRF family members. Studies analyzing IRF-expressing cell lines and IRF knockout mice reveal that each member of the IRF family exerts distinct roles in biological processes such as pathogen response, cytokine signalling, cell growth regulation and hematopoietic development. Understanding the molecular mechanisms by which the IRFs affect these important cellular events and IFN expression will contribute to a greater understanding of events leading to various viral, immune and malignant disease states and will suggest novel strategies for antiviral and immune modulatory therapy.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Animals
  • Bacterial Proteins / chemistry
  • Bacterial Proteins / genetics
  • Bacterial Proteins / physiology
  • Cell Division / physiology
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / chemistry
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / physiology*
  • Gene Expression Regulation
  • Humans
  • Immunity
  • Interferon Regulatory Factor-1
  • Interferon Regulatory Factor-2
  • Interferon Regulatory Factor-3
  • Interferon Regulatory Factor-7
  • Interferon Regulatory Factors
  • Interferon Type I / genetics
  • Interferon-Stimulated Gene Factor 3
  • Interferon-Stimulated Gene Factor 3, gamma Subunit
  • Interferons / physiology*
  • Mice
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Phosphoproteins / chemistry
  • Phosphoproteins / genetics
  • Phosphoproteins / physiology*
  • Repressor Proteins / chemistry
  • Repressor Proteins / genetics
  • Repressor Proteins / physiology
  • Sequence Homology, Amino Acid
  • Transcription Factors / chemistry
  • Transcription Factors / genetics
  • Transcription Factors / physiology
  • Virulence Factors*

Substances

  • Bacterial Proteins
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • IRF1 protein, human
  • IRF2 protein, human
  • IRF3 protein, human
  • IRF7 protein, human
  • IRF9 protein, human
  • Interferon Regulatory Factor-1
  • Interferon Regulatory Factor-2
  • Interferon Regulatory Factor-3
  • Interferon Regulatory Factor-7
  • Interferon Regulatory Factors
  • Interferon Type I
  • Interferon-Stimulated Gene Factor 3
  • Interferon-Stimulated Gene Factor 3, gamma Subunit
  • Irf1 protein, mouse
  • Irf2 protein, mouse
  • Irf3 protein, mouse
  • Irf7 protein, mouse
  • Isgf3g protein, mouse
  • Phosphoproteins
  • Repressor Proteins
  • Transcription Factors
  • Virulence Factors
  • interferon regulatory factor-4
  • interferon regulatory factor-8
  • Interferons