We report the mapping of a second myotonic dystrophy locus, myotonic dystrophy type 2 (DM2). Myotonic dystrophy (DM) is a multi-system disease and the most common form of muscular dystrophy in adults. In 1992, DM was shown to be caused by an expanded CTG repeat in the 3' untranslated region of the dystrophia myotonica-protein kinase gene (DMPK) on chromosome 19 (refs 2-6). Although several theories have been put forth to explain how the CTG expansion causes the broad spectrum of clinical features associated with DM, it is not understood how this mutation, which does not alter the protein-coding region of a gene, causes an affect at the cellular level. We have identified a five-generation family (MN1) with a genetically distinct form of myotonic dystrophy. Affected members exhibit remarkable clinical similarity to DM (myotonia, proximal and distal limb weakness, frontal balding, cataracts and cardiac arrhythmias) but do not have the chromosome-19 D CTG expansion. We have mapped the disease locus (DM2) of the MN1 family to a 10-cM region of chromosome 3q. Understanding the common molecular features of two different forms of the disease should shed light on the mechanisms responsible for the broad constellation of seemingly unrelated clinical features present in both diseases.