A diuretic hormone (DH) of unusual structure was isolated from extracts of heads of Tenebrio molitor. The hormone is a 47 amino acid peptide, Mr = 5,029.9, with the sequence AGALGESGASLSIVNSLDVLRNRLLLEIARKKAKEGANRNRQILLSL. This peptide increases cyclic AMP production in Malpighian tubules of T. molitor. We recently identified a smaller DH from T. molitor with 37 amino acids; these peptides have only 15 identical amino acids when aligned to maximize similarity to other members of the insect DH family. This family has sequence similarity to the corticotropin-releasing factor superfamily of vertebrate peptides.