To explore the potential relationship between concentrations of circulating amylin and the insulin resistance observed in first-degree relatives of patients with non-insulin-dependent-diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), we studied 40 relatives compared to 35 matched controls. Two newly developed immunoassays that measure either non-glycosylated or total amylin were applied. All subjects were examined by an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and by a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp (insulin infusion: 0.6 mU/kg/min). Glucose tolerance was normal in all, but insulin-stimulated glucose uptake (Rd) was diminished in the relatives (p < 0.001). Area under the curves (AUCs) during OGTT for plasma glucose (p < 0.01) and serum insulin (p=0.08), but not for plasma total and non-glycosylated amylin, were higher in relatives versus controls. In both groups, inverse correlations were found between Rd and AUC for plasma total and non-glycosylated amylin (p [all]<0.05). However, in multiple linear regression analyses, plasma total and non-glycosylated amylin failed to influence Rd independent of serum insulin and family history-of NIDDM. In conclusion, this study demonstrated inverse correlations between Rd and circulating concentrations of plasma total and non-glycosylated amylin in relatives and matched controls. These data, however, do not support the hypothesis that physiological amylin concentration are a major importance for the insulin resistance in relatives of NIDDM patients.