Meliacine, a peptide isolated from leaves of Melia azedarach L. inhibited the multiplication of Junin virus in Vero cells treated with the compound before infection (pre-treatment) or immediately after virus adsorption. Analysis of early events following infection demonstrated that meliacine blocks virus penetration by preventing the uncoating step. The addition of meliacine at different times after infection indicated that meliacine also interferes with the release of infectious particles to the extracellular medium and inhibits the low-pH-induced fusion of infected cells. Intracellular transport of viral glycoproteins to the cell membrane was not affected by meliacine, as revealed by immunofluorescence staining. Taken together, these results suggest that meliacine affects two events of the virus replicative cycle that require membrane fusion: uncoating and budding.