Objective: To assess disease progression in baboons (Papio cynocephalus) that were infected with two human immunodeficiency virus-2 (HIV-2) isolates.
Methods: Eight baboons were inoculated intravenously with either HIV-2UC2 or HIV-2UC14 and were followed for a 2- to 7-year period of observation.
Results: Six of 8 baboons showed lymphadenopathy and other signs of HIV-related disease, 3 of 8 baboons had an acute phase CD4+ T-cell decline, and 2 of 5 baboons infected with the HIV-2UC2 isolate progressed to an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-like disease. Human immunodeficiency virus-2-specific pathology in lymphatic tissues included follicular lysis, vascular proliferation, and lymphoid depletion. Both neutralizing antibodies and a CD8+ T-cell antiviral response were associated with resistance to disease.
Conclusions: Disease progression and the development of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in HIV-2-infected baboons have similarities to human HIV infections.