Brachiola vesicularum, n. g., n. sp., is a new microsporidum associated with AIDS and myositis. Biopsied muscle tissue, examined by light and electron microscopy, revealed the presence of organisms developing in direct contact with muscle cell cytoplasm and fibers. No other tissue types were infected. All parasite stages contain diplokaryotic nuclei and all cell division is by binary fission. Sporogony is disporoblastic, producing 2.9 x 2 microns diplokaryotic spores containing 8-10 coils of the polar filament arranged in one to three rows, usually two. Additionally, this microsporidium produces electron-dense extracellular secretions and vesiculotubular appendages similar to Nosema algerae. However, the production of protoplasmic extensions which may branch and terminate in extensive vesiculotubular structures is unique to this parasite. Additionally, unlike Nosema algerae, its development occurred at warm blooded host temperature (37-38 degrees C) and unlike Nosema connori, which disseminates to all tissue types, B. vesicularum infected only muscle cells. Thus, a new genus and species is proposed. Because of the similarities with the genus Nosema, this new genus is placed in the family Nosematidae. Successful clearing of this infection (both clinically and histologically) resulted from treatment with albendazole and itraconozole.