Purpose: To investigate the effect of active vitamin D3(VD) agents on tumor growth and metastasis.
Materials and methods: BALB/c mice were inoculated with murine renal cancer Renca and graded doses of 1,25-dehydrovitamin D3 or 1- hydrovitamin D3 were given intraperitoneally every other day beginning on day 1, 3, or 7 and ending on day 9, 11, or 15. Direct cytocidal activity and angiogenic activity were evaluated by 48-hour MTT assay and by the colorimetric method, respectively.
Results: Both VD agents inhibited tumor growth and prolonged the life span of Renca-bearing mice in a dose-dependent manner and both suppressed tumor growth in athymic mice and euthymic mice with eliminated NK activity. Marginal body-weight loss without appreciable hypercalcemia was observed in mice given VD agents. When treatment was delayed on day 7, the VD agents failed to inhibit tumor growth. The MTT assay showed no direct cytotoxicity of VD agents on Renca. Tumor angiogenesis was inhibited to 46 to 30% of the control level by VD agents. Furthermore, VD agents reduced pulmonary and hepatic foci in the metastatic models.
Conclusions: These results suggest that VD agents may be effective as a treatment for renal cell carcinoma, especially when micrometastases are involved.