Sequelae of Escherichia coli O157:H7-associated hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) 2-3 years following an outbreak in Washington State have been prospectively studied to identify predictors of adverse sequelae. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine associations between findings in the acute course and long-term renal and gastrointestinal outcomes. Twenty-one percent of patients had gastrointestinal sequelae, which included cholelithiasis resulting in cholecystectomy (3/29), persistent pancreatitis (2/29), late colon stricture (1/29), and/or glucose intolerance (1/29). Logistic regression analysis found long-term gastrointestinal sequelae were higher in patients who, during HUS, had hypertension [odds ratio (OR) = 21.2, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.9-164.4, P = 0.01] or gastrointestinal complications (OR = 21.2, 95% CI = 1.9-164.4, P = 0.01). Renal sequelae were seen in 35% of patients. One patient (4%) had persistent hypertension and 9 (31%) had minor urinary findings (hematuria or proteinuria). Thrombocytopenia lasting longer than 10 days during the acute illness was associated with a risk for subsequent renal sequelae (OR = 15.0, 95% CI = 1.98-1,703.0, P = 0.009). We conclude a high incidence of gastrointestinal sequelae, especially cholelithiasis presenting long after the acute illness, may be seen with HUS. The short follow-up period may underestimate the extent and severity of eventual renal sequelae.