Low concentration of hydrogen peroxide strongly inhibit CO2 fixation of isolated intact chloroplasts (50% inhibition at 10(-5) M hydrogen peroxide). Addition of catalase to a suspension of intact chloroplasts stimulates CO2 fixation 2--6 fold, indicating that this process is partially inhibited by endogenous hydrogen peroxide formed in a Mehler reaction. The rate of CO2 fixation is strongly increased by addition of Calvin cycle intermediates if the catalase activity of the preparation is low. However, at high catalase activity addition of Calvin cycle intermediates remains without effect. Obviously the hydrogen peroxide formed at low catalase activity leads to a loss of Calvin cycle substrates which reduces the rate of CO2 fixation. 3-Phosphoglycerate-dependent O2-evolution is not influenced by hydrogen peroxide at a concentration (5x10(-4) M) which inhibits CO2 fixation almost completely. Therefore the inhibition site of hydrogen peroxide cannot be at the step of 3-phosphoglycerate reduction. Dark CO2 fixation of lysed chloroplasts in a hypotonic medium is not or only slightly inhibited by hydrogen peroxide (2,5x10(-4) M), if ribulose-1,5-diphosphate, ribose 5-phosphate or xylulose 5-phosphate were added as substrates. However, there is a strong inhibition of CO2 fixation by hydrogen peroxide, if fructose 6-phosphate together with triose phosphate are used as substrates. This indicates that hydrogen peroxide interrupts the Calvin cycle at the transketolase step, leading to a reduced supply of the CO2-acceptor ribulose 1,5-diphosphate.