Multiple neuroanatomical tracing in primates

Brain Res Brain Res Protoc. 1998 Jun;2(4):323-32. doi: 10.1016/s1385-299x(98)00007-5.


The present report deals with a multiple tract-tracing procedure in non-human primates enabling the simultaneous visualization of retrogradely transported Fluoro-Gold (FG) and cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) in combination with anterogradely transported biotinylated dextran amine (BDA). Two issues have played key roles on the achievement of this reliable procedure: first, the recent development of a commercial antiserum against FG that allows us to convert the original fluorescent signal of this dye in a permanent precipitate via standard peroxidase-anti-peroxidase methods; second, the introduction of the novel peroxidase substrate Vector(R) VIP (V-VIP), resulting in a purple precipitate. The combination of these neuroanatomical tracers in one and the same histological section opens a possibility for the permanent visualization of the convergence of inputs from a particular brain area onto identified, two different subsets of projection cells of another area. Furthermore, this combination of three tracers emerges as a powerful technical tool for obtaining broad amounts of complementary data regarding the monkey brain connectivity, thus significantly reducing the number of animals needed to complete a particular study.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Biological Transport
  • Biotin / analogs & derivatives*
  • Biotin / analysis
  • Brain Mapping / methods*
  • Cerebral Ventricles / physiology
  • Cholera Toxin / analysis*
  • Dextrans / analysis*
  • Fluorescent Dyes / analysis*
  • Immunoenzyme Techniques
  • Macaca fascicularis
  • Male
  • Neural Pathways / physiology
  • Stereotaxic Techniques
  • Stilbamidines*


  • 2-hydroxy-4,4'-diamidinostilbene, methanesulfonate salt
  • Dextrans
  • Fluorescent Dyes
  • Stilbamidines
  • biotinylated dextran amine
  • Biotin
  • Cholera Toxin