Tuberous sclerosis (TSC) and autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) are genetically heterogeneous diseases. The major gene for ADPKD (PKD1) lies adjacent to the TSC2 gene on chromosome 16p13. Some reports in the literature referred to an unusual presentation of TSC with enlarged cystic kidneys at birth, but it was not until the localization of the TSC2 and PKD1 genes that it was possible to analyze the interaction between both genes. We describe a case of a child with TSC and enlarged cystic kidneys. The study of genetic marker segregation in the family pointed to the presence of a deletion involving the 3' region of PKD1. A further study of the region showed a deletion of 40 kb involving both PKD1 and TSC2. We suggest that an additive or synergistic effect between PKD1 and TSC2 may cause this renal phenotype. A contiguous gene syndrome involving PKD1 and TSC2 should be suspected in children with TSC and enlarged polycystic kidneys at birth. The first approach to identify a deletion of both genes could be the analysis of the segregation of PKD1 and TSC2 markers in the family.