Objective: To analyze the clinical and angiographic variables that affect the results of arteriovenous malformation (AVM) radiosurgery and to propose a new method of reporting patient outcomes after AVM radiosurgery. This method incorporates both the obliteration status of the AVMs and the postoperative neurological condition of the patient.
Methods: Patient outcomes were defined as excellent (nidus obliteration and no new deficits), good (nidus obliteration with a new minor deficit), fair (nidus obliteration with a new major deficit), unchanged (incomplete nidus obliteration without a new deficit), poor (incomplete nidus obliteration with any new deficit), and dead. Two hundred twenty patients who underwent AVM radiosurgery at our center before 1992 were subjected to a multivariate analysis with patient outcomes as the dependent variable.
Results: Multivariate analysis determined four factors associated with successful AVM radiosurgery: smaller AVM volume (P=0.003), number of draining veins (P=0.001), younger patient age (P=0.0003), and hemispheric AVM location (P=0.002). Preradiosurgical embolization was a negative predictor of successful AVM radiosurgery (P=0.02).
Conclusion: AVM obliteration without new neurological deficits can be achieved in at least 80% of patients with small volume, hemispheric AVMs after single-session AVM radiosurgery. Future studies on AVM radiosurgery should report patient outcomes in a fashion that incorporates all the factors involved in successful AVM radiosurgery.