Visualization of mitotic radial glial lineage cells in the developing rat brain by Cdc2 kinase-phosphorylated vimentin

Glia. 1998 Jul;23(3):191-9. doi: 10.1002/(sici)1098-1136(199807)23:3<191::aid-glia2>;2-8.


Although accumulating data reveal patterns of proliferation, migration, and differentiation of neuronal lineage cells in the developing brain, gliogenesis in the brain has not been well elucidated. In the rat brain, vimentin is selectively expressed in radial glia and in their progeny, not in oligodendrocytes or neurons from embryonic day 15 (E15) until postnatal day 15 (P15). Here we examined mitotic radial glial lineage cells in the rat brain E17-P7, using the monoclonal antibody 4A4, which recognizes vimentin phosphorylated by a mitosis-specific kinase, cdc2 kinase. In the neocortex, mainly radial glia in the ventricular zone, but not their progeny, underwent cell division. In contrast, not only radial glia but also various types of radial glial progeny including Bergmann glia continued to proliferate in the cerebellum. Radial glia in the neocortex divided horizontally, obliquely, and vertically against the ventricular surface. The percentage of the vertical division increased with progress in the stage of development, concurrently with the decrease of the population of horizontal divisions. Thus, the monoclonal antibody 4A4 provides an useful tool to label mitotic glia in the developing brain and revealed different patterns of gliogenesis in the neocortex and cerebellum. A possibility is discussed that the dynamics of mitotic orientation observed here may be related to the change of the pattern of gliogenesis during development.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antibodies, Monoclonal / immunology
  • Astrocytes / cytology
  • Astrocytes / metabolism
  • Biomarkers
  • Brain / cytology*
  • Brain / embryology
  • Brain / growth & development
  • CDC2 Protein Kinase / metabolism
  • Cell Lineage
  • Cell Polarity
  • Cerebellum / cytology
  • Cerebellum / embryology
  • Cerebellum / growth & development
  • Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
  • Mitosis
  • Neocortex / cytology
  • Neocortex / embryology
  • Neocortex / growth & development
  • Nerve Tissue Proteins / analysis*
  • Nerve Tissue Proteins / metabolism
  • Neuroglia / chemistry
  • Neuroglia / classification
  • Neuroglia / cytology*
  • Peptide Fragments / immunology
  • Phosphoproteins / analysis*
  • Phosphoproteins / metabolism
  • Phosphorylation
  • Protein Processing, Post-Translational
  • Rats
  • Vimentin / analysis*
  • Vimentin / immunology
  • Vimentin / metabolism


  • Antibodies, Monoclonal
  • Biomarkers
  • Nerve Tissue Proteins
  • Peptide Fragments
  • Phosphoproteins
  • Vimentin
  • CDC2 Protein Kinase