Our patient material included families and sporadic patients of Finnish origin with the diagnosis of Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease types 1 and 2, Dejerine-Sottas syndrome (DSS), and hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP). We screened for mutations in the peripheral myelin protein genes connexin 32 (Cx32), myelin protein zero (P0) and peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22) by direct sequencing. All patients chosen for mutation screening were negative for the 1.5 Mb duplication/deletion at 17p11.2-p12. Eleven Cx32 mutations were found in 12 families, six with a CMT2 diagnosis, three with a CMT1 diagnosis and three with unclassified CMT. The total number of patients in these 12 CMTX families was 61, giving a minimum prevalence of 1.2/100,000 for CMTX in Finland. Four of the mutations, Pro58Arg, Pro172Leu, Asn175Asp and Leu204Phe, have not been previously reported. One male patient with an early onset CMT had a double Cx32 mutation, Arg22Gln and Val63Ile. The double de novo mutation was found to be of maternal grandpaternal origin. In the P0 gene a Ser78Leu mutation was found in one family with severe CMT1 and a de novo Tyr82Cys mutation was found in one DSS patient. Both mutations have been previously reported in other CMT1 families. A novel PMP22 mutation, deletion of Phe84, was found in one sporadic DSS patient. Our mutation screening results show the necessity of molecular diagnosis, in addition to clinical and electrophysiological evaluation, for proper subtyping of the disease and for accurate genetic counseling.