GBP, an inhibitor of GSK-3, is implicated in Xenopus development and oncogenesis

Cell. 1998 Jun 12;93(6):1031-41. doi: 10.1016/s0092-8674(00)81208-8.


Dorsal accumulation of beta-catenin in early Xenopus embryos is required for body axis formation. Recent evidence indicates that beta-catenin is dorsally stabilized by the localized inhibition of the kinase Xgsk-3, utilizing a novel Wnt ligand-independent mechanism. Using a two-hybrid screen, we identified GBP, a maternal Xgsk-3-binding protein that is homologous to a T cell protooncogene in three well-conserved domains. GBP inhibits in vivo phosphorylation by Xgsk-3, and ectopic GBP expression induces an axis by stabilizing beta-catenin within Xenopus embryos. Importantly, antisense oligonucleotide depletion of the maternal GBP mRNA demonstrates that GBP is required for the establishment of the dorsal-ventral axis in Xenopus embryos. Our results define a family of GSK-3-binding proteins with roles in development and cell proliferation.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Animals
  • Body Patterning / genetics*
  • Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases / antagonists & inhibitors*
  • Carrier Proteins / genetics
  • Carrier Proteins / physiology*
  • Cloning, Molecular
  • Cytoskeletal Proteins / biosynthesis
  • Enzyme Inhibitors
  • Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3
  • Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Oocytes / chemistry
  • Phosphorylation
  • Protein Binding
  • Proto-Oncogenes
  • RNA, Messenger / analysis
  • Recombinant Fusion Proteins
  • Sequence Homology, Amino Acid
  • Trans-Activators*
  • Xenopus Proteins*
  • Xenopus laevis / embryology*
  • Xenopus laevis / genetics
  • beta Catenin
  • tau Proteins / metabolism


  • CTNNB1 protein, Xenopus
  • Carrier Proteins
  • Cytoskeletal Proteins
  • Enzyme Inhibitors
  • Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
  • PIAS1 protein, Xenopus
  • RNA, Messenger
  • Recombinant Fusion Proteins
  • Trans-Activators
  • Xenopus Proteins
  • beta Catenin
  • tau Proteins
  • Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases
  • Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3

Associated data

  • GENBANK/AF062738
  • GENBANK/AF062739