We examined the effects of in vitro low-dose irradiation on myeloid leukemia cells (M1 cells) and found that it enhanced the colony-forming ability (CFA) of M1 cells in semi-solid agar. This enhancement was inhibited by treatment with a protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide and with an RNA synthesis inhibitor, actinomycin D, after irradiation. These findings suggested that low-dose irradiation induced the synthesis of some proteins which were attributed to the enhancement of CFA. Since we expected that one species of these proteins were heat shock proteins (hsps), we attempted to detect the hsp70 family by the Western blotting method and inducible hsp70 mRNA by the RT-PCR method. Low-dose irradiation induced the expression of hsp70 mRNA, whereas the enhancement of hsp70 (an inducible isoform) and hsc70 (a constitutively expressed isoform) expression could not be found. Furthermore, the M1 cells showed thermoresistance 1 h after low-dose pre-irradiation, and also showed radioresistance 4 h after irradiation. This time difference after pre-irradiation might be attributed to the different species of proteins in showing resistance to lethal stress. Therefore, some proteins other than hsp70 were believed to be concerned with the augmentation of CFA and the induction of thermo- and radio-resistance.