Synergistic effects of active hexose correlated compound (AHCC) extracted from mushroom on the treatment with UFT against mammary adenocarcinoma, SST-2 cells, in congenitally T cell-depressed spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were observed. AHCC plus UFT had slight but significant effects on the growth of primary tumors. Pulmonary metastases were not inhibited by the treatment with AHCC plus UFT, whereas metastases to axillary lymph nodes (LN) were obviously inhibited. Combination of AHCC plus UFT showed similar synergistic anti-metastatic effects in SHR rats with accelerated pulmonary metastases following the surgical removal of the primary tumors. In vitro studies demonstrated that AHCC plus UFT enhanced the NK cell activity in tumor-bearing rats, whereas UFT alone depressed the NK cell activity. AHCC plus UFT also enhanced the NO production and cytotoxicity of peritoneal macrophages. In addition, AHCC restored the suppressed mRNA expression of interleukin-1alpha and tumor necrosis factor-alpha induced by the chemotherapy. Taken together, the combination of AHCC plus UFT brought about good therapeutic effects not only on primary tumor growth but also on reducing metastasis and these effects were mediated by host immunity which was restored or activated by AHCC. AHCC may be a good candidate for a biological response modifier.