Lognormal distributions for total water intake and tap water intake by pregnant and lactating women in the United States

Risk Anal. 1998 Apr;18(2):215-9. doi: 10.1111/j.1539-6924.1998.tb00933.x.


Using probability plots and Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE), we fit lognormal distributions to data compiled by Ershow et al. for daily intake of total water and tap water by three groups of women (controls, pregnant, and lactating; all between 15-49 years of age) in the United States. We also develop bivariate lognormal distributions for the joint distribution of water ingestion and body weight for these three groups. Overall, we recommend the marginal distributions for water intake as fit by MLE for use in human health risk assessments.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Data Collection
  • Drinking / physiology*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Lactation / physiology*
  • Likelihood Functions
  • Middle Aged
  • Pregnancy / physiology*
  • Probability
  • Risk Assessment
  • United States
  • Water Supply*