Angiographic assessment of myocardial reperfusion in patients treated with primary angioplasty for acute myocardial infarction: myocardial blush grade. Zwolle Myocardial Infarction Study Group

Circulation. 1998 Jun 16;97(23):2302-6. doi: 10.1161/01.cir.97.23.2302.


Background: The primary objective of reperfusion therapies for acute myocardial infarction is not only restoration of blood flow in the epicardial coronary artery but also complete and sustained reperfusion of the infarcted part of the myocardium.

Methods and results: We studied 777 patients who underwent primary coronary angioplasty during a 6-year period and investigated the value of angiographic evidence of myocardial reperfusion (myocardial blush grade) in relation to the extent of ST-segment elevation resolution, enzymatic infarct size, left ventricular function, and long-term mortality. The myocardial blush immediately after the angioplasty procedure was graded by two experienced investigators, who were otherwise blinded to all clinical data: 0, no myocardial blush; 1, minimal myocardial blush; 2, moderate myocardial blush; and 3, normal myocardial blush. The myocardial blush was related to the extent of the early ST-segment elevation resolution on the 12-lead ECG. Patients with blush grades 3, 2, and 0/1 had enzymatic infarct sizes of 757, 1143, and 1623 (P<0.0001), respectively, and ejection fractions of 50%, 46%, and 39%, respectively (P<0.0001). After a mean+/-SD follow-up of 1.9+/-1.7 years, mortality rates of patients with myocardial blush grades 3, 2, and 0/1 were 3%, 6%, and 23% (P<0.0001), respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that the myocardial blush grade was a predictor of long-term mortality, independent of Killip class, Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction grade flow, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), and other clinical variables.

Conclusions: In patients after reperfusion therapy, the myocardial blush grade as seen on the coronary angiogram can be used to describe the effectiveness of myocardial reperfusion and is an independent predictor of long-term mortality.

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Angioplasty*
  • Coronary Angiography / methods*
  • Coronary Circulation
  • Electrocardiography
  • Female
  • Humans
  • L-Lactate Dehydrogenase / analysis
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Myocardial Infarction / diagnosis*
  • Myocardial Infarction / mortality
  • Myocardial Infarction / therapy*
  • Myocardial Reperfusion*
  • Myocardium / enzymology
  • Myocardium / pathology
  • Predictive Value of Tests
  • Prognosis
  • Stroke Volume
  • Ventricular Function, Left


  • L-Lactate Dehydrogenase