A new constitutive centromere-specific protein (CENP) has been identified as a result of its recognition as an autoantigen by serum from a patient with gastric antral vascular ectasia disease. Conventional immunoblotting and two-dimensional double blotting with both this antiserum and a known anti-centromere antiserum showed that this antiserum predominantly recognized a Mr 95,000 protein that is different from all known CENPs. We have named this new protein CENP-G. This protein was detected at the centromeric region throughout the cell cycle. In mitosis, it was restricted to the kinetochore inner plate as shown by immunogold labeling and electron microscopy. The centromeres of some human chromosomes are known to contain two subfamilies of alpha-satellite DNA. Using immunofluorescence combined with fluorescent in situ hybridization with subfamily-specific DNA probes, we revealed that CENP-G was specifically associated with one of the subfamilies, which we have named alpha-1, but not the other. The localization and the alpha-1-specific association suggested that CENP-G may play a role in kinetochore organization and function. Like CENP-B and C, but unlike CENP-A, this protein remained with the nuclear matrix after intensive extraction. While CENP-B is absent from the human Y chromosome, the existence of CENP-G on the Y chromosome has been proven by immunofluorescence and whole chromosome painting. CENP-G was also detected in CHO, Indian muntjac and Chinese muntjac cells, suggesting that it is conserved in evolution.