Despite advances in the treatment of ischemic heart disease, there still exists a significant number of individuals for whom bypass surgery or angioplasty are not options. Transmyocardial laser revascularization (TMLR) is a promising technology that has already been shown to reduce symptoms in patients with chronic ischemic heart disease that is not amenable to conventional therapies. Although it appears that TMLR can provide symptomatic relief of angina in selected patients, the mechanism by which TMLR is thought to work is unclear. Recently it has been postulated that TMLR induces an angiogenic response and, perhaps, improves local perfusion to ischemic myocardial territories. A brief overview of the biology of myocardial angiogenesis is presented.