The community reinforcement approach with homeless alcohol-dependent individuals

J Consult Clin Psychol. 1998 Jun;66(3):541-8. doi: 10.1037//0022-006x.66.3.541.


Homeless alcohol-dependent individuals were randomly assigned to receive either a behavioral intervention (i.e., the Community Reinforcement Approach [CRA]) or the standard treatment (STD) at a large day shelter. Ninety-one men and 15 women participated. The majority of participants were White (64%), but both Hispanic (19%) and Native American (13%) individuals were represented as well. Overall, the decline in drinking levels from intake through follow-ups was significant. As predicted, CRA participants significantly outperformed STD group members on drinking measures across the 5 follow-ups, which ranged from 2 months to 1 year after intake. Both conditions showed marked improvement in employment and housing stability.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Comparative Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Alcoholism / psychology
  • Alcoholism / rehabilitation*
  • Behavior Therapy*
  • Community Mental Health Services*
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Homeless Persons / psychology*
  • Housing
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Social Support*
  • Temperance / psychology
  • Treatment Outcome