Objective: A report of four cases of American cutaneous leishmaniasis associated with HIV infection is presented.
Background: The association of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis and HIV infection is rare. Only 15 cases have been reported in the literature thus far.
Subjects: Four new cases are described and the differences between the clinical presentation in immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients are emphasized.
Conclusions: Multiple cutaneous lesions plus mucosal involvement characterize the clinical presentation of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in association with HIV infection in the majority of the cases. A serological investigation for HIV infection is recommended for patients presenting with this type of clinical picture, especially if the patient is a young male.