Background: Rapid diagnosis of dengue infection is essential to patient management and disease control. The development of a rapid (5 min) immunochromatographic test and a 2 h commercial capture enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for anti-dengue IgM and IgG antibodies may lead to more rapid and accurate testing in peripheral health settings and diagnostic laboratories.
Objectives: Evaluate two new commercial tests for dengue serology (Dengue Rapid test and Dengue Duo ELISA; PanBio, Brisbane, Australia).
Study design: The sensitivity and specificity of the tests were compared with in-house dengue IgM ELISA and hemagglutination-inhibition (HAI) assays using known positive and negative dengue specimens, as well as specimens from non-dengue cases.
Results: Both assays showed excellent sensitivity in the diagnosis of both primary and secondary dengue infection (100%). In both assays, IgG levels showed excellent correlation with the hemagglutination-inhibition (HAI) assay, and these could be used to distinguish between primary and secondary dengue infections (92 and 97% of patients correctly classified in the rapid test and Duo ELISA, respectively). Specificity in both assays was 89% when sera from patients, with no apparent dengue infection, typhoid, leptospirosis and malaria, were tested.
Conclusions: These tests should be a useful aid in confirming the clinical diagnosis of dengue infection. The rapid test will be particularly valuable in peripheral health settings, while the ELISA has a place in central testing laboratories.