In order to apply a set of useful and high polymorphic Y-STRs in paternity testing, we performed a population genetic study from Saxony. The allele distributions of the systems DYS19, DYS385, DYS389I/II and DYS390 were investigated in a sample of 250 unrelated males from the area of Leipzig. PCR products were detected using native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis as well as capillary electrophoresis and GenScan Software on the ABI Prism 310 DNA sequencer. Haplotype frequency data of 164 different types were obtained which show that these four systems are very useful for special cases of paternity and forensic stain analysis. In addition several confirmed father-son pairs were examined using the paternity cases of the institute. One mutation was found in the system DYS390 and sequencing data are presented.